WASHINGTON — The Senate voted on Wednesday for a second time to terminate the national emergency that President Trump declared at the southwestern border, in a bipartisan rejection of Mr. Trump’s bid to build a wall without congressional approval.
But the 54-to-41 vote, in which 11 Republicans joined Democrats to break with the president over his signature domestic priority, fell short of the margin that would be needed to overcome a presidential veto, ensuring that Mr. Trump would be able to continue to redirect military funding to build a barrier on the southwestern border.
The tally was nearly identical to the result of a vote in March, when Congress first sought to block the national emergency declaration and a dozen Republicans joined all Democrats present for the vote. Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, who voted in March to overturn the emergency declaration, did not vote on Wednesday. Mr. Rubio had a previously scheduled family matter to attend to, but would have voted again to reject the emergency declaration, his office said.
Democrats who forced the vote knew at the start that they were unlikely to draw enough Republican support to overcome a certain veto by Mr. Trump, but they pursued it anyway in an effort to apply political pressure on Republicans. It confronted Republicans with a choice between breaking with a president who demands loyalty and preserving money Congress had set aside for military projects in their states, and sticking with Mr. Trump’s border wall, even at the expense of their own constituents.
Heightening the political tension around the vote, the Pentagon this month unveiled a list of military construction projects that would be delayed as a result of the national emergency declaration. The vote in March, Senator Chuck Schumer, Democrat of New York and the minority leader, noted on Tuesday, “was before the Republicans knew which projects in their own states were at issue.”
“It’s going to be fascinating,” he said, “to see, now that they know that their states’ projects are being affected, whether they will stand up for our military and stand up for their states’ projects or cave into the president.”
Four members of the Democratic caucus who are running for president — Senators Cory Booker of New Jersey, Kamala Harris of California, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Bernie Sanders of Vermont, an independent — were also absent on Wednesday.
The House, set to leave at the end of the week for two weeks of work in their districts, could take up the resolution as early as Friday.
Democrats, who unanimously backed the measure, have vowed to continue to force votes on the national emergency — which under law they can do every six months — in part as a way to continue cornering Republicans who face tough re-election challenges. Senators Martha McSally of Arizona, Thom Tillis of North Carolina and Cory Gardner of Colorado were among the Republicans who voted in lock step with the president, though projects in their states are slated for funding delays.
The list of 127 projects that will be delayed to fund the border wall includes schools in desperate need of repair, new fire stations and health care centers, and in Puerto Rico, projects targeted after Hurricane Maria devastated the island in 2017.
Some of the Republicans who supported the measure contended that their votes were meant primarily to protect Congress’s ability to control the power of the purse, rather than as a rejection of Mr. Trump’s border wall.
“We must stand up and defend our role that the framers very clearly set forth in the Constitution,” said Senator Susan Collins, Republican of Maine and a member of the Senate Appropriations Committee, who took to the Senate floor ahead of the vote to plead with her colleagues to support the resolution. Ms. Collins is facing a competitive re-election race next year.
Republicans who voted against the measure, for their part, scoffed at what Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the majority leader, called a “show vote,” arguing that the national emergency had only been declared as a result of an unwillingness by Democrats to compromise on the border wall.
“Democratic leadership would like to invent a false choice between border security and other important military construction projects,” Mr. McConnell said in a floor speech. “The only reason there’s any trade-off is that Democrats have refused to work with the president.”
Mr. McConnell stressed, as Pentagon officials have done in conversations with lawmakers in recent days, that the funds for the projects were simply delayed, since Congress can replace the money in either the annual defense authorization policy or the must-pass spending bills that allocate funding for the next fiscal year.
Ms. McSally, for her part, has offered a resolution that would instruct lawmakers negotiating the defense policy bill for the 2020 fiscal year to insist upon replenishing the military construction funds. The version of the bill the House passed does not provide any funds to backfill those projects.
But if lawmakers fail to agree to do so, the projects are effectively canceled. Democrats in both chambers have repeatedly said that they have no intention of including the additional money in either legislation.
“Are my Republican friends really going to go home to their states and districts to defend President Trump’s shameless plundering of resources from our troops?” Senator Patrick J. Leahy of Vermont, the top Democrat on the Senate Appropriations Committee, asked on Tuesday. “We must not allow this president to invoke such sweeping powers — powers we granted to him for real emergencies — simply to address some emergency he has concocted in his head.”
Left unresolved is the broader debate over whether to allocate additional money to military construction in order to compensate for the delay in funds, as well as whether to provide for additional money for new barriers at the southwestern border. The Senate has struggled to move forward with some of the 12 must-pass spending bills in part because of objections from Democrats over the scope of the administration’s reprogramming authority and the efforts to fund the president’s border wall.
Lawmakers on the Senate Appropriations Committee have proposed $5 billion for the border wall in their initial version of the bill that would fund the Department of Homeland Security. The full committee is set to debate the legislation on Thursday.
“Right now, our position is no money for the wall,” said Representative Lucille Roybal-Allard, Democrat of California and the top Democrat on the House Appropriations Committee that funds the Department of Homeland Security. “It’s just outrageous when they’re cutting from other critical programs, not just social programs, but other programs that are important to our national defense.”
“We’ll just have to see what happens,” she said.